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Dating the Flood - Lining up Egyptian History with the Exodus

Pharaoh Tuthankhamun´s Golden Coffin - http://www.biblepicturegallery.com

Introduction

When uncertain about a historical account, one of the best methodologies is to compare it with another independent account. After lining up key events, it can give hints for resolving the rest.

 

The King's Calendar followed this approach to align the history of Jerusalem with Judah, and date the Exodus to the year 1449 BC. Applying the same approach and conversion factor to the years before the Exodus, one can trace back even further to the year of the Flood (2807 BC), but only if you place key periods in sequence that scholars normally overlap.

 

This begs for confirmation of the GeoCreationist timeline from the Flood to the Exodus with ancient Egyptian history. If the overlap produces valid conclusions and answers to questions, it not only confirms both histories, but the science behind them, and much that it implies.

 

Lining up History with Scripture

Table 1 below lays out the GeoCreationist timeline from the Flood to the Israelites' entry into Canaan. These dates are labeled in Scripture Blue. The other column contains key dates from Egyptian History (labeled in History Green), drawn from the history of Lower Egypt, which is where the Israelites would have lived. The resulting alignment yeilds some interesting results.

 

Date of the Flood

Egypt's Early Dynastic period began around 2700BC, when it ”attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement.” This is consistent with the various flood myths of the Middle East, such as Tablet XI of "The Epic of Gilgamesh”, the Epic of Atrahasis, and others. For example, the India/Pakistan region flourished between 2800-2600 BC, and has its own flood account from just before then.

 

This dating is also is consistent with a meteor impact and subsuquent tsunami in the Indian Ocean from (it seems) 2807 BC. Combined with an eclipse from May 10, 2807 BC that was recorded in at least 14 known flood accounts, and the year 2807 BC appears confirmed.

 

Israel's Entry into Egypt - The Beginning of 430 Years

Genesis tells of Joseph's rise from slavery to prominance in Egypt (Genesis 41:41-45), second only to the pharaoh himself. This is a troubling detail, because it is believed that a pharaoh would never appoint a foreigner to rule all of Egypt under him, let alone someone not recorded by history.

 

Table 1: GeoCreationist timeline beside history of ancient Egypt.
(Note: GeoCreationist timeline converts all biblical durations from lunar to solar years, then sets them end-to-end.
)
Biblical or Historical Event Egyptian History

GeoCreationist Timeline

Flood Begins
2800-ish
2807 BC
Covenant with Abram
2412 BC
Pepi II becomes Pharaoh
2278 BC
Jacob's Family Moves to Egypt
2215 BC
Pepi II dies, Egypt divided
2184 BC
1st Intermediate Period Begins
2181 BC
Joseph Dies
2147 BC
Nebhetera Mentuhotep II becomes pharaoh, and unites Egypt
2061 BC

Thutmose II becomes pharaoh

1839 BC
400-year Slavery Begins
1818 BC
Moses is born
1522 BC
Moses flees Egypt
1486 BC

Hatshepsut become female pharaoh (co-regent with Thutmose III)

1479 BC
Hatshepsut dies. Thutmose III becomes pharaoh, and will be known for his military victories
1458 BC
Slavery Ends - Desert Sojourn Begins
1449 BC
Thutmose III dies
1425 BC
Entry into Canaan
1412 BC
Solomon Commissions the Temple
970 BC
970 BC

 

As seen in Table 1 above, Joseph's rise to power traces back to the reign of Pepi II, the longest reigning pharaoh of Ancient Egypt. He ruled during a period of serious decline, which he unwittingly exacerbated. As described in Wikipedia, "Increasing wealth and power appears to have been handed over to high officials during Pepi II's reign. Large and expensive tombs appear at many of the major nomes of Egypt, built for the reigning nomarchs, the priestly class and other administrators." If Joseph turns out to be one of those administrators, it would fit right in with history.

 

Note that Pepi II died after Jacob moved the rest of Israel to Egypt, where they would live in peace for the next 430 artificial years. Joseph died 73 artificial years into thie period, while Egypt was still divided. It was only after Joseph's death when Nebhetera Mentuhotep II rose to power. Mentuhotep united Egypt as the 1st Intermediate Period ended. Joseph's prominance may have been over, but the Israelites would live in peace for the time being.

 

6 Now Joseph and all his brothers and all that generation died,

7 but the Israelites were exceedingly fruitful; they multiplied greatly,

increased in numbers and became so numerous that the land was filled with them. - Exodus 1 (NIV)

 

 

The Revival of Urban Development - The Beginning of 400 Years of Slavery

Around 1878 BC, Khakhaure Senusret III became pharaoh and revived urban development in Egypt. He died after 39 years of rule, and Thutmose II rose to power. By now, the administrators of the weakened Pepi II's questionable administration would be long forgotton. However, it would seem that about 21 years into Thutmose II's rule, the Israelites in Lower Egypt caught his attention. As recorded in Exodus 1...

 

8 Then a new king, to whom Joseph meant nothing, came to power in Egypt.

9 “Look,” he said to his people, “the Israelites have become far too numerous for us.

10 Come, we must deal shrewdly with them or they will become even more numerous and,

if war breaks out, will join our enemies, fight against us and leave the country.”

 

As shown in Table 1, this realization occurred around 1818 BC.

 

Moses and the End of Israel's Slavery

As shown in Table 1, Thutmose III came to power as co-regent with his sister Hatshepsut shortly after Moses had fled Egypt. After 20 years of peaceful rule under his sister, he took over as the lone pharaoh when she died. He appears to have been in power at the time Moses returned to free God's people (Exodus 4:19). Known for his military victories **after** his siter's death, it is not surprising that Thutmose III would resist the God of Israel until God took the drastic step of killing the first born of all in Egypt. Thutmose III let the slaves go... then he changed his mind and gave chase, only to lose his army at God's hand at the Sea of Reeds.

 

Thutmose III would rule another 24 years after that, perhaps seeking conquests to make up for his loss to the one and true God. If these timelines are correct, then it reveals an interesting historical symmetry, with Thutmose II enslaving Israel and Thutmose III freeing them.

 

What About Rameses?

Many believe Rameses I or II is the pharaoh who freed the slaves. This is undoubtedly from Exodus 1:11, which says that the Israelites "built Pithom and Rameses as store cities for Pharaoh." It is unknown where Pithum was located. There is a city of Pi Rameses however that is very well known, having been built for the Pharaoh Rameses I. However, there are two problems with this. The first is that Rameses I did not rule until 1292 BC, nearly 160 years after the Exodus from Egypt. The other is that Pi Rameses is not the city referred to in Exodus 1:11.

 

The city of Rameses in Exodus 1:11 is not the city of Pi Rameses that was built for Rameses the I. In fact, this earlier city was not originally named Rameses, but Avaris. The name Rameses was redacted into the scripture later on. Moses however knew the city as Avaris; it would have been for clarity that scribes changed the name, to keep up with the times. According to ancient records, Avaris was built in 1783 BC and was occupied until 1550 BC, fitting completely within the timeline derived above.

 

Conclusion

The timeline in Table 1 was not derived with a preconcieved history in mind. It merely combined a scientific calculation of the Flood's date with the King's Calendar calculation of the Exodus. The resulting timeline was then simply placed beside Egyptian history, and it lined up. Most people believe the duration of this history to be 427 years (Noah-to-Abram) plus 430 years (Exodus 12:41), totaling 857 years. The duration shown in Table 1 above is 1358 years. However, in Dating the Flood - How Long Did the Israelites Live in Egypt?, it is shown that the time from the covenant until the Exodus could not be a mere 430 years. The 430 years starts when Jacob entered Egypt, 214 years after God's promise. The 400 years of Genesis 15:13 starts at the end of the 430. Placed end-to-end, it brings our total duration to 427+214+430+400=1471 years. However, these appear to be artificial years, re-computed by scribes and overwritten in the scriptures, based on the misconception that the originally recorded years had only 364 days. Correct for that, and the 1471 years computes out to 1358 years (1471/1.083). Such precise alignment would seem to confirm everything above: the King's Calendar, the dating of the flood, the dating of the Exodus, and the alignment with Egyptian History.